[ISS4E] Fwd: [New post] A Network of Intelligent DER
keshav at uwaterloo.ca
Thu Sep 18 13:25:34 EDT 2014
A very interesting article by Steven Low!
> From: Rigor + Relevance <comment-reply at wordpress.com>
> Energy and the environment are probably the most critical and massive
> problems of our times. The transformation of our energy system into a
> more sustainable form will take decades, determination, and
> sacrifices. In the case of power networks, several powerful trends are
> driving major changes. In this post, we will look at two of them.
> The first trend is the accelerating penetration of distributed energy
> resources (DER) around the world. These DER include photovoltaic (PV)
> panels, wind turbines, electric vehicles, storage devices, smart
> appliances, smart buildings, smart inverters, and other power
> electronics. Their growth is driven by policies and incentive
> programs. California, for instance, has ambitious policy goals such
> * Renewable Portfolio Standard (2002): 33% of retail electricity will
> be procured from renewable sources by 2020.
> * Global Warming Solutions Act (2006): Reduce greenhouse gas emission
> to 1990 level by 2020.
> * California Solar Initiative (2007): Offers solar rebates for
> customers of three CA investor-owned utilities, from 2007 – 2016.
> * ZNE homes (2007): All new residential construction will be zero net
> energy by 2020.
> * Energy storage target (2010): The three investor-owned utilities
> will deploy 1.325 GW of non-hydro storage by 2020.
> Leading the world, in terms of percentage share of non-hydro renewable
> generations (at approximately 20% now), is Germany. Its relentless
> push for renewables, in the face of technical and financial
> challenges, will no doubt help find a way forward and benefit us all.
> See a recent New York Times article (
> ) , where a proud German reader commented, “And that's what I love
> about my country, it is a pain, it causes frustration and malice, but
> nobody questions the vision.” The question is not whether we
> should move to a sustainable future, but how we overcome the many
> challenges on the way (e.g., see Adam's earlier post about Germany's
> challenges (
> ) ); and the earlier we start, the less painful the process will be.
> The second trend is the growth of sensors, computing devices, and
> actuators that are connected to the Internet. Cisco claims that the
> number of Internet-connected “things” exceeded the number of
> people on earth in 2008, and, by 2020, the planet will be enveloped in
> 50 billion such “Internet-of-things (
> ) ”. Just as Internet has grown into a global platform for
> innovations for cyber systems in the last 20 years, Internet-of-things
> will become a global platform for innovations in cyber-physical
> systems. Much data will be generated at network edges. An important
> implication on computing is that, instead of bringing data across the
> network to applications in the cloud, we will need to bring
> applications to data. Distributed analytics and control will be the
> dominant paradigm in such an environment. This is nicely explained by
> Michael Enescu (a Caltech alum!) in a recent keynote (
> https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1WfbnMU7CMc ) .
> The confluence of these two trends points to a future where there are
> billions of DER, as well as sensing, computing, communication, and
> storage devices throughout our electricity infrastructure, from
> generation to transmission and distribution to end use. Unlike most
> endpoints today which are merely passive loads, these DER are active
> endpoints that not only consume, but can also generate, sense,
> compute, communicate, and actuate. They will create both a severe risk
> and a tremendous opportunity: a large network of DER introducing
> rapid, large, frequent, and random fluctuations in power supply and
> demand, voltage and frequency, and our increased capability to
> coordinate and optimize their operation in real time.
> At Caltech, we are interested in developing an intellectual framework
> to understand and guide this historic transformation and to address
> engineering and economic challenges that will arise in the coming
> decades. There is no shortage of intellectually interesting and
> practically important problems – if you are starting out your
> graduate study, you should definitely consider this area.
> For instance, a radically different control architecture for future
> grid is endpoint-based control where each DER self-manages through
> local sensing and computation, and communicates with its neighbors.
> They make local decisions based on their own states and possibly
> information from their neighbors. The global behavior that emerges
> from the interaction of these local algorithms must be stable, robust,
> efficient, and above all, understandable.
> An example of this approach in the context of load-side participation
> in frequency regulation is discussed in my previous blog post (
> ) . Though frequency regulation has been mainly implemented on the
> generator side, there are three important advantages to ubiquitous
> continuous and distributed load-side participation.
> * Unlike spinning reserve, load-side control does not waste fuel or
> produce extra emission.
> The ubiquity of load-side control can better localize disturbance and
> produce more reliable response through the law of large numbers. The
> paper “Achieving controllability of electric loads (
> http://web.eecs.umich.edu/~hiskens/publications/05643088.pdf ) ” by
> Callaway and Hiskens provides an example where 60,000 air conditioners
> can be controlled to track the output of a wind farm accurately
> without deviating from the desired temperature by more than 0.15
> and an example where 20,000 electric vehicles can be controlled to
> track demand profile accurately without impacting their charging
> Finally, since loads have low or no inertia, they can respond fast.
> The simulation in our recent CDC2014 paper “Optimal decentralized
> primary frequency control in power networks (
> http://users.cms.caltech.edu/~czhao/ZhaoLow_CDC2014.pdf ) ”
> demonstrates that load-side participation can significantly improve
> both the steady-state and transient behavior over generator-only
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